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眼の初歩(解剖・生理)1 – のがみ動物病院

眼の初歩(解剖・生理)1

眼瞼について

眼瞼は眼球の最表面にあり、上眼瞼と下眼瞼からなります。眼瞼は瞬きをすることで、外部からの異物や光からの保護や涙液の分泌、涙液の眼表面への分布、涙液の排泄などの機能を果たしています。ここで涙液についてもう少しお話しましょう。涙液の構成は①水成分油成分粘液成分からなります。水成分は上眼瞼にある主涙腺および瞬膜腺より分泌され、無血管組織である角膜の代謝や表面の潤滑などの役割があります。油成分は上下の眼瞼内に20~40個ほど存在するマイボーム腺により合成、眼瞼縁より分泌され涙液の蒸散を防止するほか涙液の安定性・拡散などにも関わります。粘液成分はムチンで構成され、眼表面において涙液保持、潤滑、バリア機能などの役割を担っています。この中で涙液水成分の欠乏により眼表面の乾燥を生じ、角膜や結膜に炎症を生じ、眼痛、二次的な角膜障害を起こす病気を乾性角結膜炎(KCS)と言います。

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